Preheat the oven to 450 degrees F. Cut the pork tenderloin in half crosswise, then in half lengthwise. Rub with 1 tablespoon chili-garlic sauce, and set aside to marinate at least 10 minutes. Meanwhile, cook the quinoa as the label directs.
Season the pork generously with salt and pepper. Heat the olive oil in a large ovenproof skillet over medium-high heat. Add the pork and cook, turning, until browned all over, about 5 minutes. Transfer the skillet to the oven and roast until a thermometer inserted into the pork registers 140 degrees F to 145 degrees F, 4 to 6 minutes. Transfer to a cutting board to rest.
Meanwhile, whisk the remaining 2 teaspoons chili-garlic sauce, the peanut butter, soy sauce, lime zest and juice, 1/4 teaspoon salt, a few grinds of pepper and 1/4 cup water in a medium bowl.
Divide the quinoa among bowls; top with the edamame, carrot ribbons and bean sprouts. Thinly slice the pork and add to the bowls. Drizzle with the peanut sauce and top with the cilantro.