Heat 2 teaspoons of the oil in a large skillet over medium heat. Add the onions, carrots, broccoli and jalapeño. Cook, stirring often, until the vegetables are tender, about 5 minutes. Add the chili powder, garlic powder and cumin. Cook to bloom the spices, about a minute. Transfer to a large mixing bowl; reserve the skillet.
Combine the vegetables with the beef, oats, beans, Worcestershire sauce, salt, pepper and egg. Lightly mix and form evenly into 6 patties.
In the same skillet, heat the remaining tablespoon oil over medium-high heat. Cook the burgers until browned and crusty on both sides, about 3 minutes per side.
Transfer the burgers to the buns, top with sliced avocado and tomato and drizzle with ranch dressing.
The carrots and broccoli can be grated in a food processor fitted with the blade or grating attachment, or by hand using a box grater.
The oats and beans can be done in the food processor with the blade attachment.