For the cupcakes: Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F. Line a cupcake pan with paper liners.
Sift the cake flour, cinnamon, salt and 1/3 cup powdered sugar into a bowl.
Place the remaining 1/3 cup powdered sugar in the bowl of a stand mixer fitted with the whisk attachment. Add the egg whites and cream of tartar and beat on low speed until frothy, about 1 minute. Increase the speed to medium-high and whip until stiff peaks form, 5 to 6 minutes more. Pour in the vanilla and mix for 30 seconds more.
Spoon the sifted ingredients into the egg mixture and whisk to combine.
Spoon the batter into the lined cupcake pan, creating a heaping mound of batter in each cup. Bake the cupcakes until lightly golden, about 20 minutes. Allow to cool 10 minutes before removing from the pan, then let cool completely.
For the dark chocolate filling: Place the heavy whipping cream in a medium mixing bowl and whip until soft peaks are formed, 2 to 3 minutes. Melt the chocolate in a microwave or over a double boiler, then allow the chocolate to cool for 2 minutes. Scrape the chocolate into the whipped cream and whisk to form a thick ganache. Remove 1/2 cup chocolate ganache and place in a small mixing bowl. Add the cayenne pepper to this mixture and whisk it in. Place the regular and the spicy ganache into separate piping bags fitted with medium round tips.
Use a small knife to make an X on the surface of each cooled cupcake. Pipe the regular ganache into 9 of the cupcakes, pushing the tip of the pastry bag gently into the center of each. Pipe the spicy ganache into 3 of the cupcakes in the same manner.
For the 15-minute meringue frosting: Place the egg whites and granulated sugar in the bowl of a stand mixer fitted with a whisk attachment, and beat until foamy. Add the vanilla extract and cream of tartar and whip the mixture at medium speed until glossy, about 2 minutes. Reduce the speed to low and slowly pour in 1/2 cup boiling water. Increase the speed to medium-high and whip until stiff peaks form, 12 to 15 minutes.
Generously top each cupcake with the meringue frosting. Use an offset spatula to create peaks in the mounds of meringue. Top each cupcake with a red cinnamon jelly bean and serve immediately.
Use real eggs for the egg whites, not liquid egg whites.