For the slaw: To a large bowl, add the cabbage, a generous pinch of salt, vinegar, carrots, onion and garlic. Toss to combine, then set aside to sit for 15 to 20 minutes. Add the mayonnaise and mix to combine.
For the quick pickles: To a bowl or container, add the vinegar, 1 cup water, the salt, sugar and hot sauce. Stir well to combine. Add the cucumbers, then allow to sit for 20 minutes.
For the chicken: Fill a deep fryer or large heavy-bottomed pot with 2 inches of canola oil. Heat to 350 degrees F. Set a rack inside a rimmed sheet pan.
To a large bowl, add 1 tablespoon of the garlic powder, 1 tablespoon of the onion powder, 1 tablespoon of the chipotle powder, mustard powder and buttermilk. Add the chicken and submerge, ensuring the chicken is fully coated. Allow to marinate for 15 minutes. To another large bowl, add the flour, the remaining 1 tablespoon garlic powder, the remaining 1 tablespoon onion powder, 1 tablespoon of the salt and the baking soda. In a small bowl, combine 1 tablespoon salt and the remaining 1 teaspoon chipotle powder.
Preheat the oven to 400 degrees F. Remove the chicken from the buttermilk mixture and place into the seasoned flour. Toss until the chicken is fully coated, then transfer it back into the buttermilk, and then back into the seasoned flour so the chicken is double coated. Dust off any excess flour, and gently place the chicken into the hot oil. Fry the chicken in batches until the crust is golden brown and crispy and the chicken reaches an internal temperature of 160 degrees F, 4 to 5 minutes. Place on the prepared sheet pan and season the chicken immediately with the chipotle salt. Transfer to the oven and continue to cook for another 5 minutes or until the chicken reaches an internal temperature of 165 degrees F.
For the maple mustard sauce: Mix the Dijon and maple syrup in a small bowl to combine.
To assemble: Spread some of the maple mustard sauce followed by a slice of cheese on the top and bottom of each bun. Add the fried chicken, then the slaw and finally the pickles. Serve with more maple mustard sauce on the side for dipping.