For the lemon-mint simple syrup: Add 1 cup water and the sugar to a small saucepan over medium heat and bring to a simmer. Turn off the heat and add the lemon peels and mint. Allow to cool completely.
For the blueberry smash layer: Add the blueberries, 6 tablespoons lemon-mint simple syrup and lemon juice to a blender. Puree until thoroughly combined. Add to a 2-cup liquid measuring cup. Stir in the bourbon and set aside.
For the lemon-julep layer: Add 1/2 cup water, the lemon juice, 1/3 cup of the lemon-mint simple syrup and the bourbon to a 2-cup liquid measuring cup. Stir to combine and set aside.
Add 1/2 cup blueberry smash to any ice pop mold you have, filling each mold halfway. Allow to freeze until solid, about 1 hour.
Once the blueberry smash layer is frozen, top off the ice pop with 1/2 cup of the lemon-julep layer into each individual mold. Allow to freeze until solid, about 1 hour.
Carefully remove the pops from the mold and serve.