Prepare the salad: Put the eggs in a saucepan; cover with cold water by 2 inches. Bring to a simmer over medium-high heat and cook 8 minutes. Transfer the eggs to a bowl of ice water with a slotted spoon, then drain, peel and roughly chop.
Heat 1/4 inch olive oil in a medium skillet over medium-high heat. Add the bread cubes and fry, turning with a slotted spoon, until golden, about 2 minutes. Transfer the croutons to a paper towel-lined plate to drain.
Discard the outer layer of leaves from the escarole. Separate the remaining leaves and coarsely chop. Toss with the croutons in a large bowl.
Make the dressing: Put the lemon juice, orange juice, vinegar, olive oil, garlic and anchovies in a small covered container; shake well. Toss with the salad. Divide among plates, top with the hard-boiled eggs and season with salt and pepper.