Place a pizza stone or an inverted rimmed baking sheet on the bottom rack of the oven and preheat to 500 degrees F.
Dust a piece of parchment paper lightly with flour. Stretch or roll out the pizza dough into a 12-inch round on the parchment, then transfer the dough on the parchment to a pizza peel or another inverted rimmed baking sheet.
Brush the pizza all over with the butter and sprinkle with the caraway seeds. Top with half of the Swiss cheese, then sprinkle over 1/4 cup of the sauerkraut. Add the pastrami, overlapping the slices, then top with the remaining slices of Swiss cheese.
Slide the pizza on the parchment onto the pizza stone or rimmed baking sheet and bake until the cheese is melted and the crust is golden brown, 10 to 15 minutes.
Drizzle the pizza with Russian dressing and top with the remaining 1/2 cup sauerkraut and the gherkins.
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