Heat the olive oil in a large pot over medium heat. Add the onion, carrots, celery and thyme and cook, stirring occasionally, until the vegetables begin to soften, about 4 minutes. Add the broth and 3 cups water and increase the heat to high. Cover and bring to a boil, then add the ravioli. Reduce the heat to medium and simmer until the ravioli are tender (see label for approximate cooking time).
Add the escarole to the soup and cook, stirring, until wilted. Season with salt and pepper. Ladle the soup into bowls and sprinkle with the cheese. Serve with the bread.