A cross between a pickle and a salad, these sweet and spicy melon wedges make a great side for grilled meats, especially those with Asian-inspired marinades or sauces. They can also be diced and added to ceviche, a salad, or wrap. Unlike most pickles, these don't get better with age, so use them within a day before their tender flesh starts to break down. If you like it spicy, use Thai chiles; for less heat, use Fresnos.
Cut the honeydew into half. Save half for another use. Remove the rind. Cut into 3 wedges and then slice across to make 1/2-inch-thick triangles. You should have about 6 cups. Put the fruit in a resealable plastic bag.
Put the vinegar, sugar and chiles in a small saucepan. Bring to a boil, stirring occasionally, and boil for about 30 seconds. Transfer to a small bowl and stir in 1 cup of ice. When the mixture is tepid, pour it over the melon, and seal, pressing out the air. Lay the bag flat in a shallow dish and chill for at least 4 hours and up to overnight, flipping the bag after about 2 hours.
Remove the melon from the brine, shake off excess liquid, and place on a platter. Sprinkle some peanuts and herbs over the top, if using, and serve.