Grate 1/2 teaspoon lemon zest and set aside. Quarter the lemon and squeeze the juice into a medium bowl of water; add the squeezed lemon quarters. One at a time, cut off the top one-quarter of each artichoke; pull off the tough outer leaves (there will be several layers). Using a paring knife, trim the stem and lightly peel around the bottom of the base where it meets the stem. Halve the artichokes lengthwise and add to the lemon water.
Heat 2 tablespoons olive oil in a large skillet over medium heat. Drain the artichokes, pat dry and place cut-side down in the skillet; add the lemon quarters. Add the 2 smashed garlic cloves and a generous pinch of salt. Cook until the artichokes soften slightly, about 3 minutes. Add the wine and bring to a simmer, then add 1 cup water. Cover, reduce the heat to medium low and cook until the artichokes are tender, 10 to 15 minutes. Uncover and remove from the heat.
Meanwhile, heat the remaining 2 tablespoons olive oil in a small skillet over medium heat. Add the reserved lemon zest and the grated garlic and cook, stirring constantly, about 20 seconds. Add the breadcrumbs and 1/2 teaspoon salt and cook, stirring, until golden brown, about 7 minutes. Stir in the parsley.
Transfer the artichokes cut-side up to a platter and season lightly with salt. Top with the breadcrumb mixture and drizzle lightly with olive oil. Serve warm or at room temperature.