For the dough: In a stand mixer fitted with the dough hook, mix together the water, sugar and yeast. Let it sit until foamy, about 5 minutes. With the mixer running on low speed, add the oil and salt, then gradually add the bread and whole-wheat flours. Increase the speed to medium high and mix, adding just enough additional bread flour so that the dough no longer sticks to the bowl, until the dough is smooth and slightly sticky, 7 to 10 minutes. (Alternatively, mix by hand and knead on a lightly floured surface.) Place the dough in an oiled bowl and turn it once or twice to coat it in oil. Cover the bowl with plastic wrap and let rise in a draft-free place for 2 hours or in the refrigerator overnight.
For the pizza: If the dough was refrigerated, let the dough sit at room temperature for about an hour before shaping.
Preheat the oven to 500 degrees F. Place a 14-inch cast-iron pan into the oven to preheat while you prepare your other ingredients.
Add the sausage to a medium pan over medium-high heat. Cook, breaking it up into crumbly pieces, until browned throughout and no longer pink, 5 to 8 minutes. Set aside.
Flour a work surface and rolling pin, then roll out the dough to a 14-inch round.
Remove the cast-iron pan from the oven and drizzle with 3 tablespoons of the olive oil to coat. Carefully place the dough into the pan and push the edges up against the side of the pan. Drizzle the dough with the remaining 3 tablespoons olive oil. Top with the tomato sauce in an even layer. Then, sprinkle on the kale, sausage, mozzarella, grated Parmesan, thyme, lemon zest and some salt, black pepper and red pepper flakes. Bake until the crust is golden brown, 18 to 20 minutes. Allow to cool slightly, then slice and serve straight from the pan!