For the croutons: Preheat the oven to 400 degrees F and line a baking sheet with parchment paper.
Roll the dough on a floured counter to a 12-inch square. Use a pizza cutter to trim to a mostly even square. Cut into 16 smaller squares. Dollop 1 teaspoon pesto and 1/2 teaspoon Parmesan in the center of each square. Gather in the corners of each and twist to form a ball that's smooth on top; pinch the bottom to close. Place on the baking sheet and repeat with the remaining dough. Brush with a little olive oil.
Bake the croutons until puffed and golden brown, 16 to 18 minutes. Let cool while you assemble the salad.
For the salad: Whisk the vinegar, oregano, 1/2 teaspoon salt and several grinds of pepper in a small bowl. Whisk in the olive oil to make a smooth dressing. Add the garlic and let steep while you assemble the salad.
Put the romaine in a large, shallow salad bowl. Top with the tomatoes, provolone, salami, red onion, cucumber, roasted peppers, olives and pepperoncini. Add the pesto balls. Drizzle with the dressing, then season with salt and pepper and toss well.