Add the butter to a medium pot over medium heat and let it brown. Add the carrot, onion and ginger and let cook until lightly softened, about 5 minutes.
Add the squash and cook, stirring occasionally, for 5 more minutes. Season with salt and pepper. Add the garlic and cook for 2 more minutes. Add the curry paste and cook for another 2 minutes. Whisk in the coconut milk and chicken stock. Simmer until the sauce is reduced and thickened, about 45 minutes. Stir in the fish sauce and spinach.
Serve over rice and garnish with the peanuts, cilantro, pomegranate and limes.