Mix together the chipotle chile powder and sugar on a small plate. Rim a coupe glass with a lime wedge, then dip the rim in the chile/sugar mixture.
Add the cognac, mango puree, Simple Syrup and lemon juice to a cocktail shaker, add large ice and shake vigorously. Taste for balance, then double-strain into the prepared coupe glass and serve.
Combine the sugar and 1 cup water in a small saucepan and bring to a boil. Cook, stirring, until the sugar dissolves. Remove from the heat and let cool completely. Keep covered in the refrigerator up to 1 month.