Toast bread in hot oven or under broiler. Rub toast with crushed garlic top with tapanade and drizzle with extra-virgin olive oil.
Place vinegar in a bowl and whisk in 1/2 cup extra-virgin olive oil in a slow stream to combine. Add seasonings and pepper and whisk again to distribute the herbs and spice throughout the dressing.
Quarter each romaine heart lengthwise and trim away core. Arrange 1/2 heart, 2 trimmed quarters, on each of 4 serving plates. Top lettuce with 2 garlic toasts. Drizzle toasts and lettuce with 1/4 of the prepared dressing and serve.