Heat the peanut oil in a large cast-iron skillet over medium-high to high heat. Add the chile peppers, cauliflower, zucchini, bell peppers and scallion whites. Cook, stirring, until the cauliflower has softened slightly and begins to char, about 5 minutes.
While the vegetables are cooking, stir together the soy sauce, rice wine vinegar, honey, chili paste, ginger, sesame oil, garlic and lime zest and juice in a small pitcher. Whisk in the cornstarch until completely dissolved.
Reduce the heat to low and add the sauce. Cook, stirring continuously, until everything is coated in the sauce and the cauliflower is cooked through, 1 to 2 minutes, adding up to 1/4 cup water if it looks dry. Add the peanuts and toss to coat. Taste and add more chili paste or soy as desired. Serve hot in a bowl, garnished with the reserved scallion greens.