For the topping: Heat 1 tablespoon of the oil in a medium skillet over medium heat. Add the panko and cook, stirring constantly, until light golden brown, about 3 minutes. Push the panko to one side and add the remaining tablespoon oil to the skillet. Add the garlic directly to the oil and cook, stirring it into the oil, about 30 seconds. Mix the garlic into the panko and continue to cook until the panko is golden brown, about 1 minute more. Transfer to a bowl and cool, then stir in the Parmesan.
For the Caesar dressing and salad: In a small jar with a lid, combine the lemon juice, mayonnaise, mustard, Worcestershire sauce, anchovies, garlic, 1/4 teaspoon salt and a generous amount of black pepper. Add in the oil and shake until emulsified.
Put the kale in a large bowl. Pour the dressing over the kale and toss to coat. Let stand 5 minutes. Sprinkle the toasted panko mixture over the kale.