Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F. Toss the bread with the olive oil, 1/2 teaspoon salt and a few grinds of pepper on a baking sheet. Bake until golden, 15 to 25 minutes; let cool.
Meanwhile, cook the barley as the label directs; spread on a baking sheet and let cool.
Make the dressing: Bring a small saucepan of water to a boil. Add the egg and cook 5 minutes, then remove to a bowl of ice water to cool; peel. Puree in a blender with the vegetable oil, anchovies, garlic, lemon juice, 2 tablespoons water, the Worcestershire sauce, parmesan and mustard.
Combine the kale, lettuce, barley and croutons in a large bowl. Add the dressing and toss. Season with salt and pepper. Top with shaved parmesan.