For the glaze: In a small saucepan, bring the vinegar, maple syrup, mustard and garlic to a boil over medium heat. Reduce the heat to a simmer and cook until thick, about 12 minutes. Set aside to cool for 5 minutes.
For the salmon: Position a rack in the center of the oven and preheat the oven to 400 degrees F. Line a small baking sheet with parchment paper. Arrange the salmon on the baking sheet. Drizzle both sides of the salmon with the olive oil and season with 1 teaspoon salt and 1/2 teaspoon pepper. Roast until the salmon is cooked through and flakes easily with a fork, 8 to 10 minutes. Set aside to cool for 10 minutes.
For the vegetables: In a medium skillet, heat the olive oil over medium-high heat. Add the shallots, 1 teaspoon salt and 1/4 teaspoon pepper, and cook until the shallots are softened, about 3 minutes. Add the garlic and cook until aromatic, about 30 seconds. Add the edamame and snap peas and cook until warmed through, about 3 minutes. Season with salt and pepper.
Divide the vegetable mixture among 4 serving plates. Top with a piece of salmon and drizzle with the glaze.