Arrange the bread slices in a single layer on a baking sheet and drizzle with the olive oil. Transfer to the oven and toast until just crisp, about 10 minutes. Set aside.
Preheat the broiler; position a rack in top third of the oven.
Bring a large pot of water to a boil. Add the broccoli rabe and cook until al dente, 4 to 5 minutes. Drain and rinse with cool water.
Transfer the broccoli rabe to a food processor and add cannellini beans, garlic, shallot, oregano, and salt and pepper to taste. Pulse to roughly chop. Transfer to a bowl, add 2 to 4 tablespoons of the goat cheese, and bind together with hands.
Top each piece of toast with a heaping tablespoon of the beans-and-greens mixture and then with about 2 tablespoons of the remaining goat cheese. Broil until the cheese is golden, about 2 minutes. Serve warm.