Dough: In a food processor, pulse flour, sugar, salt, and butter until butter breaks into pea-size pieces. Add cream cheese and process just until incorporated and a mass of dough is formed. Do not overmix or dough will be tough.
Turn dough out onto a work surface and knead a couple times to bring dough into a cohesive mass. Divide dough in half and form two flat, round discs; wrap each in plastic and refrigerate for 45 minutes. (At this point, dough can be frozen for several months.)
Filling: Lightly flour a work surface and a rolling pin, then roll one disc of dough into a 16-inch round (add more flour to prevent sticking). Evenly spread half the jam in a thin layer, stopping 1 inch from the edge of the dough. Sprinkle half the sugar over the top, followed by half the almonds.
Assembly: Trim the outer edge of the dough to make a clean circle all around. Cut dough like a pizza into 12 triangles. Beginning at the wide end, roll up each triangle; place formed rugelach on parchment-lined sheet trays, pointed edge down. Repeat with remaining disc of dough. Freeze for 30 minutes. Preheat oven to 350 F.
Bake rugelach until golden, 25–35 minutes. Remove to a wire rack, let cool, and serve.