Heat 3 tablespoons olive oil in a large skillet over medium heat. Add the garlic and cook until fragrant, about 1 minute. Increase the heat to high; add the bread in batches and toast until golden on both sides. Set aside and season with salt.
Whisk the vinegar, the remaining 5 tablespoons oil, 1/2 teaspoon salt and pepper to taste in a large bowl. Add the radicchio, celery, salami, basil, mozzarella and olives; toss to coat.
Place 1 romaine half on each plate. Drizzle with olive oil and season with salt and pepper. Spoon the salad onto each wedge, drizzling any remaining dressing on top; serve with the toasts.