Place a pizza stone or an inverted rimmed baking sheet on the bottom rack of the oven and preheat to 500.
Toss the roasted peppers, tomatoes, basil and minced garlic with 1 tablespoon olive oil in a bowl; season with salt and pepper. Cook the sliced garlic in the remaining 1 tablespoon olive oil in a small skillet over medium-high heat until golden, about 1 minute. Cool slightly.
Stretch or roll out the pizza dough into a 12-to-14-inch round on a lightly floured surface. Generously dust a pizza peel or another inverted baking sheet with cornmeal and place the dough on top. Drizzle with a little of the garlic oil and season with salt. Top with the mozzarella, provolone and tomato-pepper mixture, then sprinkle with the pine nuts and sliced garlic.
Slip the pizza onto the preheated pizza stone or baking sheet and cook until the crust is golden and crisp and the cheese is melted, 10 to 15 minutes. Top with goat cheese before slicing.