Line a baking sheet with parchment paper. Combine the peanut butter and butter in a large bowl and beat with a mixer on medium speed until smooth, 1 to 2 minutes. Gradually add the confectioners' sugar, then the vanilla; beat until the mixture comes together in clumps, 1 to 2 minutes. Add the crushed potato chips and beat until combined.
Roll the mixture into tablespoon-size balls (about 36); arrange on the prepared baking sheet. Refrigerate while you melt the chocolate.
Put the chocolate in a medium heatproof bowl set over a saucepan of simmering water (do not let the bowl touch the water). Let melt, stirring occasionally, about 10 minutes. Remove the bowl from the saucepan. One at a time, dip the truffles in the melted chocolate with a spoon, letting the excess drip back into the bowl, then return to the baking sheet. Push a large potato chip piece into each truffle. Refrigerate until the chocolate sets, at least 15 minutes, or freeze until ready to serve.