Prepare chickpeas: Soak chickpeas in enough water to cover by 2 inches, for 8 to 12 hours, refrigerated.
Drain chickpeas and rinse well. Transfer to a large saucepan and add 8 cups water. Bring to a boil, then reduce heat and simmer, uncovered, until tender, 1 1/4 to 1 1/2 hours. Cool chickpeas and drain, reserving cooking liquid. You should have about 2 1/2 cups liquid (if not, add more water).
Coarsely puree tomatoes in a food processor.
Cook onion and celery in butter in a 4-quart heavy pot over moderately low heat, stirring occasionally, until softened. Add turmeric, pepper, and cinnamon and cook, stirring, 3 minutes.
Stir in tomato puree, 1/3 cup cilantro, chickpeas with reserved liquid, vegetable broth, and lentils. Bring to a boil, then reduce heat and simmer, uncovered, until lentils are tender, about 35 minutes.
Stir in pasta and cook, stirring, until tender, about 3 minutes. Stir in parsley, remaining 1/3 cup cilantro, and salt to taste. Divide among bowls and serve.